Assam Agriculture

Assam Agriculture is the primary sector in the state's economy. The socio-economic condition of Assam largely depends on its agricultural production. Thereby, the Assam department of agriculture has decided to take up various development measures to ensue growth in crop production.

Agriculture plays the chief role of revenue earning in Assam economy. The state of Assam experiences plenty of rainfall and possess a fertile land which is extremely advantageous for cropping. This has led to the flourishing growth in food crops and staples in Assam agriculture. Rice is the main food crop in Assam agriculture as it is the main diet in the state too. Those who are engaged in the agricultural department of Assam fully concentrates on cultivating rice as it falls under their main priority. Other food crops cultivated in Assam agriculture include jute, sugarcane, fruits, tea, pulses, coconut, potatoes, cotton, and arecanuts. More than 50 percent of the total population of the state are involved in agricultural activities of Assam.

Few factors that contribute largely to the development and growth of the agricultural activities of Assam are listed below:

  • Highly yielding strains
  • Chemical fertilizers
  • Irrigation
  • Crop protection
  • Advancement of loan for various agricultural activities
  • Marketing facilities
  • Flood control
  • Implementing drought evading schemes


Flood is highly ruinous for crop production. During 1991-92, the state of Assam witnessed three floods in one year which has caused a heavy loss to the cultivation sector damaging a cropping area of around 3.5 lakh hectares. Therefore, flood control is very important and should be given foremost priority to save the crops in Assam. In spite of such a terrible loss in crops during 1991-92, the state received 31.85 tonnes of rice and it covered around 70 percent of the total cultivated land. The total agricultural land for rice is 35 lakh hectares in Assam.

The oilseed production of the agricultural sector in Assam has been looming large on the other hand with a production of 1.9 lakh tonnes during 1990-91. The pulses covered an area of 1.2 lakh in the same year with a production rate of 53,000 MT. The increase in the usage of fertilizers has been a real boost up for the crop production in Assam. Besides, multiple cropping system has been adopted by the farming community and this has augmented the crop production up to 145 percent during 1991-92 as compared to the 140 percent in the previous year. This multiple cropping system has also enabled the agricultural sector of Assam to take up various modernization schemes since 1992-93.

Assam agriculture is now focusing on horticulture segment of the state. Horticultural crops of Assam agriculture such as coconut, citrus, banana, black pepper, and papaya have been placed on the priority list and a range of plantation materials have been ordered for these crops to increase its productivity. Sugarcane is claimed to be one of the main cash crops in the Kharif season in Assam. Also various pesticides and other protection measures are being taken up by the agricultural department of Assam to assure safety to the plantation in the state. All these have contributed to the state's marked productivity in agriculture to a great extent and with the advent to newer schemes, the agriculture of Assam will soon reach the peak of fecundity.

Last Updated on 07th Jully 2011