Impact of Globalization
Positive impacts of Globalization
Globalization is the new catchphrase in the world economy, dominating the globe since the nineties of the last century. People relied more on the market economy, had more faith in private capital and resources, international organizations started playing a vital role in the development of developing countries. The impact of globalization has been fair enough on the developing economies to a certain extent. It brought along with it varied opportunities for the developing countries. It gave a fillip for better access to the developed markets. The technology transfer promised better productivity and thus improved standard of living.
Negative impacts of Globalization
Globalization has also thrown open varied challenges such as inequality across and within different nations, volatility in financial market spurt open and there were worsening in the environmental situation. Another negative aspect of globalization was that a majority of third world countries stayed away from the entire limelight. Till the nineties, the process of globalization in the Indian economy had been guarded by trade, investment and financial barriers. Due to this, the liberalization process took time to hasten up. The pace of globalization did not start that smoothly.
Economic integration by 'globalization' enabled the cross country free flow of information, ideas, technologies, goods, services, capital, finance and people. This cross border integration had different dimensions - cultural, social, political and economic. More or less the economic integration happened through four channels -
- Trade in goods and services
- Movement of capital
- Flow of finance
- Movement of people
Advantages of globalization
The gains from globalization can be cited in the context of economic globalization:
- Trade in Goods and Services - From the theoretical aspect, international trade ensures allocating different resources and that has to be consistent. This specialization in the processes leads to better productivity. We all know from the economic perspective that restrictive trade barriers in emerging economies only impede growth. Emerging economies can reap the benefits of international trade if only all the resources are utilized in full potential. This is where the importance of reducing the tariff and non-tariff barriers crop up.
- Movement of Capital - The production base of a developing economy gets enhanced due to capital flows across countries. It was very much true in the 19th and 20th centuries. The mobility of capital only enabled savings for the entire globe and exhibited high investment potential. A country's economic growth doesn't, however, get barred by domestic savings. Foreign capital inflow does play an important role in the development of an economy. To be specific, capital flows either can take the form of foreign direct investment or portfolio investment. Developing countries would definitely prefer foreign direct investment because portfolio investment doesn't have a direct impact on the productive capacity expansion.
- Financial Flows - The capital market development is one of the major features of the process of globalization. We all know that the growth in capital and mobility of the foreign exchange markets enabled better transfer of resources cross borders and by large the global foreign exchange markets improved. It is mandatory to go in for the expansion of foreign exchange markets and thus facilitate international transfer of capital. The major example of such international transfer of funds led to the financial crisis - which has by now become a worrying phenomenon.
Last Updated on 5/18/2011