2G Technology in India

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The Telecom Policy-94 set the ball rolling for the telecom industry in India. With the introduction of this policy came an influx of cellular phones that completely out did the age old fixed landline phones. This policy was built on a revenue sharing model between the government and the telecom operators. The revenue that the government received from the telecom operators was in the form of spectrum charges and license fee.

The telecom industry in India has witnessed a sea change over the last few decades. Gone are the days of the analog landline that took days to get installed. Technology is one thing that keeps on changing or rather getting enhanced. With the introduction of the Second Generation wireless telephony technology in India the entire country seems to have become technology savvy. After the arrival of the GSM mobile technology the concept of an analog landline has almost faded. Today you can get your number activated within minutes and talk while you are anywhere.

2G means second generation wireless telecommunication technology. 2G was first launched in Finland by Radiolinja in 1991. 2G technologies in India came as a revolution in the digital world as it introduced several new features on mobile phones like email and SMS. Cellular phones got a new meaning now talking was just one of the features of a phone.

One of the major highlights of the 2G technology in phones is speed. The reason behind the speed provided by 2G phones is that they use radio signals whereas the earlier 1G technology enabled handsets used analog radio signals. The introduction of the 2G brought with it a host of benefits in the world of mobile technology. One of the biggest advantages of 2G networks over the 1G was that that phone conversations were digitally encrypted. The introduction of 2G also brought a radical increase in the mobile phone users in India. Since the 2G systems were considered to be more efficient than their predecessors the mobile phone penetration levels increased in the country by manifolds. The one most important feature introduced by 2G technologies was data services like sending and receiving text messages.

The major technical difference between 2G and 1G is that the radio signals used in 1G network phones are analog and the radio signals provided on 2G network phones are digital. However both 2G and 1G system connect to radio towers through digital signalling. In 2G technology several digital data streams are generally combined to make one signal. 2G networks can be categorized as (TDMA) time division multiple access or (CDMA) code division multiple access.

The concept of the 2G technology in India was introduced ma to mainly facilitate voice clarity services and slow data transmission.

Advantages of 2G technology in India
  • There are several advantages of the 2G technology in India
  • The lower power emissions are much safer for daily usage.
  • 2G technology makes use of digital multiplexing which actually enhances the capacity of the bandwidth to accommodate more calls.
  • 2G handsets also have error checking features which is done with the help of digital voice encoding.
  • The battery life of a 2G enabled handset is longer due to lower powered radio signals.
  • 2G enabled handsets offer improved sound quality
  • After the launch of 2G technology in India digital data services, such as SMS and email came into existence.
  • Introduction of 2G reduced the chances of fraud.
  • 2 G phones are said to give far more privacy than their predecessors. The 1G phones have no protection against eavesdropping due to the use of security algorithms which are not as powerful as the radio scanners used in 2G phones.
Disadvantages of 2G technology in India

One major setback of the 2G technology is that the digital signals involved in this technology are highly reliable on proximity to towers and location. The quality of a call made from a 1G handset might suffer from poor quality but it survives longer distances.

2G Technologies

The technology used in 2G cell phones in India for the purpose of transferring information are;

Frequency division multiple access (FDMA)
Code division multiple access (CDMA)
Time division multiple access (TDMA)

All the three above mentioned technologies have a separate function allotted to them.

The Frequency division multiple access allots each call to a different frequency, the Code division multiple access provides a unique code to each call and the Time division multiple access gives each call a time span on the appointed frequency.

The 2G spectrum scam

The 2G spectrum scam was one of the most talked about issues in 2008. The major issue behind the scam was that licenses for 2G technology were issued at throwaway prices to the private telecom players in India. Most of the people involved in this scam were ministers and government officials. The scam proved detrimental to the county's telecom industry. Thee scam costs the government a loss of ` 1.76 lakh crore.

However since technology is something that keeps getting better several better and upgraded versions of the 2G have been invented like the; 2.5G, 2.75G, 3G, and 4G. The 3G and 4G are the currently creating waves in the country. Internet services that come with 3G and 4G are not just restricted to SMS's and emails infact you can watch videos, chat send and send and receive quick messages and etc.

(Last Updated on 07/07/2011)